The adaptation of REDD+ initiatives in forest management regimes in two pilot projects of Kondoa and Kilosa Districts, Tanzania

The adaptation of REDD+ initiatives in forest management regimes in two pilot projects of Kondoa and Kilosa Districts, Tanzania

As one of the countries with a higher rate of deforestation and forest degradation, Tanzania contributes high CO2 emissions per annum through deforestation estimated to be in the order of 78 million tons and forest degradation of about 48 million tons amounting to a total of 126 million tons CO2 emissions per year. The country was earmarked for piloting REDD+ activities in order to inform the UNFCCC global process on designing and implementing REDD+. Therefore, since April 2009, Tanzania has been piloting REDD+ after signing a Letter of Intent with the Government of the Kingdom of Norway on a Climate Change Partnership with a focus on reduced emission from deforestation and forest degradation.
The aim of the Kilosa REDD+ pilot project was to conserve forest resources through CBFM and ensuring that forests serve as a spring board for carbon storage and local communities’ livelihood as well as revitalizing local level governance structures. Moreover the project intended to link local communities to the international carbon markets. The  REDD+ pilot in Kondoa district aimed at mitigating climate change by conserving Kolo Hills Forests as well as reducing poverty among the targeted communities in the project area. The project also planned to prepare local stakeholders to enter the carbon trading successfully. Furthermore, the project intended to revitalize local level governance structures and recreating the trust lost as a result of top down conservation model used by HADO (Hifadhi Ardhi Dodoma – A Land Rehabilitation Programme).
REDD+ pilot project in Kilosa was based on CBFM. The regime demands the establishment of titled village forest reserves; forest resource management plans; village land–use plans, and bylaws defining rules for forest resource use. The project also worked towards establishing a system for validation, monitoring, reporting and verification. As part of this process, by-laws were established that defined rules regarding the use and protection of the resources. Before the introduction of REDD in the district, the key institutions existed include Village Councils and the General Assemblies as well as the Village Natural resources Committees (VNRCs). However, VNRCs were vitalized by REDD+.
The REDD+ Piloting in Kondoa adapted JFM and CBFM management options for the state and village forests respectively. Under JFM arrangement, the state has absolute property rights while local communities are given some specified user rights. While, under CBFM, local  communities  are  owners  and  have  absolute  user  rights. AWF in Kondoa opted to establish a special committee for REDD+ implementation in the villages. While this approach aimed at increasing efficiency and effectiveness it was later learned to have been a source of intra-village conflicts.

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