Whose reality counts? Putting the first last

Whose reality counts? Putting the first last

Whose reality counts? Putting the first last

Why do so many development interventions fail? Chambers describes and analyses major past errors. These range from structural adjustment policies to integrated rural development projects, from estimates of community-level grain losses and wood fuel forecasts to beliefs about famines and nutrition, and blaming the poor for much environmental degradation. Why have development professionals so often been so wildly wrong yet so confident they were right?