The State of Biodiversity in West Asia: a mid-term review of progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Global Biodiversity Outlook-4 (GBO-4), the mid-term review of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 , published by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD), provides a global assessment of progress towards the attainment of the Planâ??s biodiversity goals and associated twenty Aichi Biodiversity Targets, but contains limited regional information.
This second edition of the State of Biodiversity in West Asia report builds on and complements the global GBO-4 assessment, serving as a near mid-term review of progress towards the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 for the West Asia region specifically. This report draws on a set of regional indicators, information from fifth national reports to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), other government reports, case studies and published literature, to provide a target by target review of progress towards the twenty Aichi Biodiversity Targets. As much as possible, global indicators for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets have been broken down to regional level and additional analyses of existing global information have been undertaken.
The key messages about the state of biodiversity in West Asia, and the pressures upon it, which have emerged from this assessment are:
- available biodiversity and ecosystem service information for the region is limited, which has made the reporting task challenging, and in many cases data are too poor and fragmentary to allow robust conclusions
- the major drivers of biodiversity decline have seen a rapid increase, including urban expansion, the spread of intensive agricultural systems and cultivation of marginal land resulting from considerable population growth. Such changes necessitate reliance on resources imported from elsewhere in the world, meaning that West Asias ecological footprint is growing sharply and now exceeds the global average
- the volatile political situation in parts of the region means conservation work has been unable to proceed in the countries or areas experiencing significant internal and international conflicts and political instability in recent years
- protected areas networks in West Asia are limited in both coverage and management effectiveness
- wildlife crime linked to hunting is a continuing problem with ineffective enforcement of regulations and legislation
- water scarcity, driven by rapidly rising demand, is threatening the survival of the regions wetland habitats
- multiple anthropogenic and climatic pressures are interacting to threaten the integrity of marine ecosystems
- the region is likely to be one of the hardest hit by the direct and indirect impacts of climate change such as sea level rise, sea temperature rise, increasing water scarcity and ground water salinity, and desertification