The Asia and Pacific region has some of the largest and most diverse ecosystems on Earth. Despite its rich natural capital, this report by the Asian Development Bank and WWF shows that biodiversity is declining in the region in all types of ecosystems, including forests, rivers and oceans, with the rate of species loss about twice the global average. The report argues that maintaining natural capital is essential for making green economies a reality in the region. It examines the state of key ecosystems in Asia and the Pacific region and what can be done to sustain them. It highlights major initiatives in four large-scale regional ecosystems that demonstrate how cooperative strategies for investing in natural capital and natural resources management are being developed and applied: the Living Himalayas, the Heart of Borneo (HoB), the Coral Triangle (CTI) and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS).