Parental background and child human capital development throughout childhood and adolescence: evidence from four low- and middle-income countries
The key finding is that parental income is strongly and positively associated with child nutritional status and cognitive achievement across all countries and at all stages of childhood and adolescence, even after controlling for other background dimensions, but the same does not hold for parental education. Child non-cognitive skills across all countries and at different ages, however, are mostly predicted by the mothers personality traits reflected in her non-cognitive skills, social capital, and aspirations for the childs education. Associations of parental background factors with child human capital measures do not change systematically with child age, except that mothers aspirations for child education exhibits a positive association with child cognitive and non-cognitive skills that is increasing in child age across countries.
Overall, the results suggest that policies that seek to improve the material circumstances of the household and mothers education and socioemotional competencies may be effective in promoting child cognitive and socioemotional development in low- and middle-income countries.