The challenge of climate change calls for action to assist vulnerable communities to cope and adapt. In keen awareness of this, numerous international CCA initiatives have emerged. Most of them involve large-scale, 'high-tech' infrastructure for physical protection. Such investments are often needed to deal with impacts of climate change, but the ways that rural people handle their land, water, crops and animals must also be adapted. Various 'climate-smart' farming practices are being introduced but, in the process, local initiatives to deal with climate change in agriculture and natural resource management are often ignored. This may not only limit the success of introduced practices but also weaken local adaptive capacity.