Lesotho is a typical example of a country considered highly vulnerable to climate-related challenges. This paper provides an overview of what climate change will mean to subsistence and smallholder farmers in Lesotho, and how the capacity for climate change adaptation in agriculture can be strengthened, focusing on selected areas of crops, livestock and forest-based livelihood systems, to stabilize and improve yields. Drawing on experiences and lessons learned from a pilot FAO/Government of Lesotho project the paper concludes that: * a more systematic adaptation response with close coordination at the national, district and community levels is necessary. * some low input and affordable adaptation responses are already available for implementation, but they require upgrading and coordinated support. * documenting and field testing location specific adaptation practices, combined with an integrated approach and targeted training, has the best chance of success and sustainability.