Cash transfers are increasingly seen as a popular form of social protection, representing a solution to reducing absolute poverty and food insecurity for vulnerable groups. The Swaziland Old Age Grant (OAG) was introduced in 2005 as a universal grant to all Swazi citizens over 60 years of age, many of whom are caring for orphaned children in their households. This study assesses what impact the OAG has had at household level, and discusses the mechanisms by which the OAG has been delivered since its inception. The report argues that the OAG has proved to be a valuable social protection intervention for reducing the absolute poverty and food insecurity experienced by so many of the elderly, and their households. The administrative system and institutional framework for the registration of beneficiaries and disbursement of cash has been established, efforts need to be maintained to continue increasing the value of the transfer.