Developing countries are faced with the dual challenge of reducing poverty while improving management of natural capital and mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and local pollutants. The challenge is particularly acute for large, rapidly growing economies, such as India, China and Brazil. In 2007 the Energy Sector Management Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank began to provide support to countries to develop long-term frameworks for reducing GHG emissions in a way that is compatible with economic growth objectives. This report presents lessons learned from seven country studies. These include: countries must take the leading role; adopt a flexible approach and build a multi-disciplinary team; stakeholder engagement and consensus building is essential; allow sufficient time and resources; and invest in data and tools. The report is intended as a practical guide for government officials, practitioners and development agencies involved in low carbon development planning.