Climate change vulnerability and adaptation planning can be taken into consideration across many sectors and at different levels and scales. However, different scales have different contexts, which require different approaches. In a landscape context, inter-linkages between sectors form the context of adaptation planning, as the response of any one sector may have consequences for others. Moreover, climate change is not the only change that may affect the sector; adaptation will have to address future socioeconomic change as well. This report argues that this calls for new foundation for climate change adaptation assessments: a holistic view of the landscape as a complex system with multiple livelihoods or sectors under multiple pressures. The paper points out gaps in using sectoral vulnerability and adaptation assessment for landscape adaptation planning, and proposes instead an extended framework for climate change vulnerability and adaptation with a holistic view of the landscape.