The high prevalence of gender-based violence, particularly domestic violence, in Timor-Leste is considered to be a key challenge for the country. There is recognition that incidents of intimate partner violence and family violence have been increasing significantly. A recent study has found that (2009-2010) approximately 38 per cent women aged 15-49 have experienced physical violence. Advances have been made in strengthening the enabling environment for addressing violence against women, however, there is little analysis of the success or failure of such interventions. The formal state justice system in Timor-Leste also faces significant capacity challenges. Due to various reasons women are often more comfortable going through local justice processes, though they have been critiqued for the dominance of patriarchal beliefs, and the lack of female involvement, transparency and enforcement of local rulings.