Prevalence rates of child marriage and early child-bearing have been declining across India over the past two decades, but absolute numbers remain high. This paper uses data collected from 3,000 children over 15 years in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana by Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty, to provide an evidence base from which to strengthen policy and programming in this area.
An ecological life-course framework is used to explore the causes of child marriage and early child-bearing and the factors which help to prevent them. Findings show that:
- girls who stay in school for longer marry later, but gender gaps in enrolment widen during adolescence
- where household resources are limited, gendered social risks become more acute and parents are forced to make decisions which disadvantage girls
- aspirations matter but reflect wider realities
- and social norms that encourage early child-bearing are compounded by inequitable access to health and education services
The paper finds that, whilst child marriage and early child-bearing are driven by entrenched patriarchal norms regarding the role and value of girls (and women) in society, structural factors are critical. Poverty and social disadvantage constrain girls opportunities and exacerbate the risks they face, forcing individual girls and their families to maintain normal practices, thus reinforcing norms. An ecological life-course framework helps to demonstrate the need for a layered strategy to tackle the gendered disadvantages which drive child marriage and early child-bearing.