Tackling poverty in a changing climate is going to be critical if our international response to climate change is going to encourage, not constrain, development. Yet at the same time, it is a very large topic, and this Key Issues guide cannot, and does not, attempt to be a one-stop ‘how-to’ guide to ending poverty in the context of climate change. Rather, the approach we take is to consider four processes which we feel will have fundamental implications for climate change and poverty efforts, but which perhaps do not currently receive the attention they deserve. These processes are:
- Deagrarianisation (a long-term de-linking of livelihoods in the global south from agriculture)
- Equity and economic growth.
What characterises all four processes is that they can be viewed in many ways as forms of autonomous adaptation, and adaptations which often are not just, or even, to climate change per se. Yet policymakers set on rolling out planned adaptation interventions should also consider:
- the implications of the ways in which these processes are currently unfolding for climate change policy and practice, and;
- the ways in which planned intervention can best engage with these processes, so as to push them towards sustainable adaptation, and away from maladaptation.
‘Deagrarianisation’, simply put, is the process of lives and livelihoods in the global south becoming increasingly de-linked from agriculture. Off-farm activities are, as a result, of ever greater importance. Where people start doing less in the way of climate sensitive activities, and more in the way of productive, climate insensitive activities, deagrarianisation can be a means to reduce vulnerability, both to poverty and to climate change impacts. More . . .
Most global production and investment is concentrated in urban areas. Most low- and middle-income nations are urbanising. Almost all the growth in the world’s population in the next few decades is projected to be in urban centres in low- and middle-income nations. Therefore, as the Satterthwaite and also the Huq et al papers note, how urbanisation is managed and governed has fundamental implications for poverty reduction, as well as for climate change adaptation and mitigation. More . . .
Migration activities are an integral part of highly contextualised, multi-dimensional and increasingly multi-local livelihoods, as the 2009 Human Development Report points out. As such, migration is an important feature in the process of rural change, deagrarianisation and urbanisation. Understanding migration is critical to getting us past the rural/urban divide in our thinking on poverty. More . . .
Equity and economic growth
Whilst economic growth is by no means overlooked in climate change and development debates, there are two broad issues to consider, one of which receives significantly more attention than the other: energy intensity of economic growth and equity. More . . .