Internal displacement global overview of trends and developments in 2008
2008 saw 4.6 million people newly displaced. The biggest new displacement was in the Philippines whilst there were also massive new displacements in Kenya, DRC, Pakistan, Somalia, Sri Lanka and India. The largest internally displaced populations are in Sudan (4.9 million), Colombia (up to 4.3 million) and Iraq (2.8 million).
There are three ways IDPs can address their displacement: through returning to their place of origin; integrating in the place to which they have been displaced; or settling in a third location. However there are obstacles to all these solutions. Insecurity was seen as a main impediment to return as was lack of access to education. The most frequent obstacles both to durable return and local integration was the lack of livelihood opportunities. Overall the absence of a political settlement or peace agreement was extremely prominent in 2008 and was perceived as one of the main obstacles to durable solutions in 21 countries.
To assist durable solutions, programmes should promote income-generating activities and address land and property disputes arising when properties left behind by IDPs are occupied by others or destroyed. The report suggests that addressing these issues requires immediate and long-term action, first to register abandoned land and property, and then to rebuild properties and implement restitution and compensation mechanisms.