What is gender?
'Gender' refers to the socially constructed roles of and relations between men and women, while 'Sex' refers to biological characteristics which define humans as female or male. These biological characteristics are not mutually exclusive however, as there are individuals who possess both.
'Gender relations' are characterised by unequal power. 'Gender norms' assign specific entitlements and responsibiltiies to men and women - for example, women might be expected to take on caring or domestic duties and remain close to home, while men may be expected to be the main breadwinnner, working outside the home, with greater freedom to move around in public places.
gender inequality persists - this has implications for women's capacity to benefit from global trade policy
This is known as the gendered division of labour. In all countries of the world, women continue to exist in roles and relationships that often make them subordinate to men, because they are paid less than men for the same work, because their movements are restricted, or because they are not permitted to take on higher status work.
Acceptable 'gender roles', like those outlined above, are often translated into economic policies and activities. Despite the fact that many governments have ratified international gender instruments such as CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women), gender inequality persists. This has implications for women's capacity to benefit from global trade policy.
- Gender training wiki
- United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, 2006
- This online resource provides access to information about gender mainstreaming, training opportunities on gender awareness as well as information on gender-related grants and scholarships.
- Mainstreaming gender in development: a critical review
- F. Porter; C. . Sweetman / Oxfam, 2005
- This edition of the Oxfam publication, Gender and Development, critically explores how gender mainstreaming has been implemented in development organisations. The articles presented in the journal assess the impact of gender mainstrea...
- Gender mainstreaming in practice: a toolkit
- A. Neimanis / Regional Bureau for Europe and the CIS, United Nations Development Programme, 2007
- Considerable progress has been made in the area of gender equality in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS, yet, this has been matched by new circumstances and emerging challenges. This handbook is targeted at polic...
- Gender mainstreaming in poverty eradication and the Millennium Development Goals
- N. Kabeer / International Development Research Centre, 2003
- This book explores the issue of gender inequality through the lens of the Millennium Development Goals, particularly the first one of halving world poverty by 2015. It explains that gender equality merits specific attention from polic...
- Trade, gender and poverty
- N. Çagatay / United Nations Development Programme, 2001
- This paper focuses on the relationship of trade, on the one hand, with gender and poverty, on the other, within the context of the human development paradigm. Specifically, it examines the impact of trade liberalization on gender ineq...
- Gender mainstreaming: learning and information packs
- Gender in Development Programme, UNDP, 2001
- These 6 information packs were designed for capacity building specialists and staff members with substantive responsibility for gender mainstreaming. However, they have been shown to have broad relevance for many applied policy and or...