Tools and frameworks
Why do we need research into the gender impacts of trade liberalisation? The active participation of women's organisations and gender experts in trade policy processes is critical to identifying and correcting the adverse effects of trade policies, as well as promoting their positive effects on gender equality. Participating effectively in trade policy processes is primarily about accessing, interpreting and acting on information. Consequently there is a key role for information, knowledge and learning processes. Here we highlight some of the most successful and effective processes for monitoring and assessing the impacts of trade rules on women.
WTO trade policy review mechanism (TPRM)
The informal Working Group on Gender and Trade has developed tools to be incorporated into the Trade Policy Review (TPR) process that help to identify potential opportunities and threats for women's well-being, as well as for other vulnerable groups. However, it should be noted that the main purpose of the TPRM is not to assess the impact of trade agreements and rules, but to assess a particular country's compliance with them and the extent to which it has met its commitments.
Sustainability impact assessments
The Sustainability Impact Assessments (SIAs) scheduled under the Cotonou Agreement are another possible entry point for integrating women's specific concerns into the negotiation process. However, SIAs need to incorporate gender analysis into their framework, methodology and monitoring tools, since gender equality is still only a minor element of the assessments.
Value chain analysis
A Value Chain Analysis links the entire range of sectors, economic activities and agents involved from the completion of a product or service to its delivery to customers. Gendered value chain analysis can be used by civil society organisations, researchers and government actors to better understand women's and men's economic situation and levels of empowerment.
Women's edge coalition trade impact review
The Women's Edge Coalition tool provides an extensive overview of the literature and frameworks to analyse gender-differentiated impacts of new trade and investment ageements undertaken by the US prior to their negotiation and signing. A framework is then proposed that accounts for both the economic as well as legal effects of trade agreements on men and women.
Women in development europe gender indicators
WIDE has developed a set of indicators for gender impact assessments of trade policy and practice. Gender and situational analysis are utilised to obtain snapshots of the direct and indirect effects of changes in trade policy on gender relations in Argentina, Brazil, the EU and Mexico.
UN gender trade impact assessments
The task force on Gender and Trade of the UN Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality has proposed the establishment of a Gender Trade Impact Assessment (GTIA) process to ensure gender responsiveness in the design of trade rules.
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) framework
The APEC framework consists of three interrelated elements: gender analysis, sex-disaggregated data, and involving women in APEC. It is designed to support the elimination of barriers to women's full participation in the economy, increase their capacity to respond to economic opportunities offered by trade, and integrate their economic interests into strategies for economic recovery.
CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency) gender and equality trade-related capacity building tools
The CIDA tools are designed to ensure that the differential impacts of trade on women and men are understood, and that men and women are able to benefit equally from the new opportunities created by trade liberalisation. The tools suggest ways in which gender equality and other issues, in the context of trade, can be addressed through a variety of mechanisms, including policy development processes and through the development of standards.
The BRIDGE Cutting Edge Pack on Trade and Gender argues that the combination of a human rights approach and a political economy approach holds the greatest potential for providing a coherent and gender-aware conceptual framework for trade. BRIDGE provides a concise set of recommendations for various organisations, including research tools, suggestions for better mainstreaming of gender issues, and entry points for incoporating gender into the broader pro-poor trade and development agenda.