Searching with a thematic focus on Governance
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- DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1996The political dimension of adjustment was a problem to which relatively little attention was paid until the beginning of the 1990s. Analysts had, of course, been building and testing politico-economic models for over 20 years, but these concerned the developed countries, where the political context is very different.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1996Political commitment is the key ingredient needed for economic take-off and long-term growth. Poor countries will be unable to escape the vicious circle of poverty unless they and the international community join forces. Inappropriate financial policies can lead to a decline in and poor allocation of savings, subsequently holding back growth.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1999Globalisation and regionalisation tend to be mutually reinforcing. Policies must ensure that this outcome prevails, for non-OECD and OECD countries alike. Globalisation can weaken social cohesion and States’ economic policy autonomy. Post-taylorist “flexible” forms of organisation now drive and shape globalisation.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1994In 1990-1991, world wide military expenditure amounted to $950 billion. This bill could be reduced by the year 2000 by over $300 billion. Excessive military expenditure jeopardizes development prospects. Policies to achieve transparency and to strengthen military security arrangements should be a priority.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1993Developing countries will account for almost all the increase in the world's labour force over the next 25 years; most countries, especially in Africa, will experience very rapid labour force growth. Labour-intensive development has been spectacularly successful in some countries and others have begun to emulate them.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1999A growing recognition of the need to delimit the role of the government, to promote the market framework, and to rely on the private sector as the engine of growth, offers the prospect of a new beginning in rural development in Africa.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1992Trade barriers seriously distort patterns of international trade, allocation of resources, and economic growth. The total economic costs of the barriers are estimated to exceed $475 billion per annum. Partial reform, such as envisaged in the Uruguay Round, would yield benefits of $195 billion per annum, of which over $90 billion would accrue to developing and formerly centrally planned countries.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1992Public enterprise privatisation policies have aroused enormous interest during the past decade. The majority of both developed and developing countries, and more recently the countries of Eastern and Central Europe, have launched ambitious programmes for transferring public sector property to the private sector.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1992Environmental policy should be inspired by the recognition that the environment is everyone’s business; all social actors must be involved in environmental management. Policies that implicitly subsidize a wasteful and environmentally destructive use of resources are pervasive: reforms should command a high priority on economic as well as environmental grounds.DocumentOECD Development Centre, 1992Adjustment does not necessarily increase poverty.Adjusting before a crisis reduces social costs.Refusal to adjust and the suspension of imports leads to self-centred underdevelopment, which is socially much more costly. The choice of macroeconomic stabilisation measures is important: the same result can be obtained with higher or lower social costs.