Wage trends in post-apartheid South Africa: constructing an earnings series from household survey data

Wage trends in post-apartheid South Africa: constructing an earnings series from household survey data

Addressing inconsistencies across household surveys

This paper examines South African wage earnings trends using all the available post-1994 household survey data. It identifies and addresses the sources of data inconsistencies across surveys in order to construct a more comparable earnings time series. Taking account of the inconsistencies in questionnaire design and the presence of outliers, the authors construct a fairly stable earnings series for formal sector employees.

The authors find that claims that workers have on average experienced a substantial decrease in their real wage earnings in the post-apartheid era is based on choosing datasets on either side of Statistics South Africa's changeover from October Household Surveys (OHS) to the more consistent Labour Force Surveys (LFS), which caused a discontinuous and inexplicably large drop in average earnings.

The data actually shows an increase in real wage earnings in the post-transition period for formal sector employees, and does not provide strong evidence of decreasing wages in the informal economy.

The paper also investigates changes in the distribution of earnings, as well as mean earnings trends by population group, gender and skill category.