Rapid fragility and migration assessment for Sudan: Rapid Literature Review

Rapid fragility and migration assessment for Sudan: Rapid Literature Review

This literarure report provides a literature review from Desk  based research. Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for migrants. Sudanese migrants are a mixed group of refugees and asylum seekers, economic migrants and, to a lesser extent, foreign students . The majority are men aged 25 – 40, and they come from a wide range of socioeconomic and educational backgrounds.

The majority of refugees and asylum seekers are in neighbouring countries, while somewhere in the region of 500,000 economic migrants are working in the Gulf States. There are also smaller numbers of Sudanese migrants in Western countries, with 16,901 residence permit holders in the EU28 by the end of 2014. Given the important role of remittances for individuals in Sudan, and for the Sudanese economy, the state is generally supportive of migration. There has been state collusion in people smuggling and trafficking of migrants, with members of the Sudanese military, border patrols, police and refugee camp guards reportedly involved. There is general consensus that Sudan suffers from brain drain, at least in some sectors. Most notable among these is the health sector. The majority of migrants to Sudan tend to be migrant s transiting through Sudan on their way to Libya and Egypt, and possibly on to Europe. They generally travel through Sudan with people smugglers.

There is very little evidence on the links between inward and outward migration and development. However, internal migrants have generally performed more poorly than the remainder of the Sudanese population on the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicators. Moreover, rural – urban migration has resulted in a significant increase in urban poverty in Sudan.

Gaps in the literature include information on income by occupation, and its trajectory, the wealth profile of migrants, ethnic/tribal/regional breakdowns of migrants, details of legal alternatives to the migrant journey from Sudan, the development dimensions of migration, and information on the benefits that Sudan might obtain or forgo from reduced out - migration.

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